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The R Manuals

edited by the R Development Core Team.

The following manuals for R were created on Debian Linux and may differ from the manuals for Mac or Windows on platform-specific pages, but most parts will be identical for all platforms. The correct version of the manuals for each platform are part of the respective R installations. The manuals change with R, hence we provide versions for the most recent released R version (R-release), a very current version for the patched release version (R-patched) and finally a version for the forthcoming R version that is still in development (R-devel).

Here they can be downloaded as PDF files, EPUB files, or directly browsed as HTML:

Manual R-release R-patched R-devel
An Introduction to R is based on the former "Notes on R", gives an introduction to the language and how to use R for doing statistical analysis and graphics. HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB
R Data Import/Export describes the import and export facilities available either in R itself or via packages which are available from CRAN. HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB
R Installation and Administration HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB
Writing R Extensions covers how to create your own packages, write R help files, and the foreign language (C, C++, Fortran, ...) interfaces. HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB
A draft of The R language definition documents the language per se. That is, the objects that it works on, and the details of the expression evaluation process, which are useful to know when programming R functions. HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB
R Internals: a guide to the internal structures of R and coding standards for the core team working on R itself. HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB HTML | PDF | EPUB
The R Reference Index: contains all help files of the R standard and recommended packages in printable form. (9MB, approx. 3500 pages) PDF PDF PDF

Translations of manuals into other languages than English are available from the contributed documentation section (only a few translations are available).

The LaTeX or Texinfo sources of the latest version of these documents are contained in every R source distribution (in the subdirectory doc/manual of the extracted archive). Older versions of the manual can be found in the respective archives of the R sources. The HTML versions of the manuals are also part of most R installations (accessible using function help.start()).

Please check the manuals for R-devel before reporting any issues with the released versions.


These binaries (installable software) and packages are in development.
They may not be fully stable and should be used with caution. We make no claims about them.